Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease in which the pancreas is unable to produce enough insulin due to the destruction of b -cells or the body does not utilize insulin properly. Continuous fluctuation of blood glucose levels is responsible for prolonged complications such as diabetic nephropathy (DN), diabetic retinopathy, or diabetic cardiomyopathy. Approximately, 20-30% of all diabetic patients face DN, which causes the formation of diabetic glomerular lesions and reduced glomerular filtration rate. In the case of renal failure, kidney transplantation is the only available therapy, however, it is expensive and almost unattainable due to unavailability of donors and host immune rejection. Stem cells are an alternative and attractive source of therapy because of their proliferative nature and the ability to produce distinct specialized cells. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which are derived from bone marrow, possess an anti-inflammatory property and the ability of selfrenewal and differentiation into a variety of specialized cells. MSCs are widely used to treat different diseases including DN and they have shown encouraging outcomes. This review provides details about the regenerative efficiency of using MSCs in treating diabetic nephropathy.
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Introduction: Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are considered as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Indeed, they display all characteristics of MSCs that compliant with the minimal criteria of MSCs suggested by Domonici et al. (2006). However, some recent studies showed that ADSCs contain the subpopulation that was positive with CD34 marker â€“ a marker of hematopoietic stem cells. This study aimed to analyze and determine the expression of CD34 marker in ten samples of ADSCs obtained from 10 donors.
Methods: All ADSC samples were isolated and expanded according to the published previous protocols. They were confirmed as the MSCs with some markers and differentiation potential, excepting the CD34 expression. Then they were cultured and analyzed the expression of CD34 by flow cytometry at passage 3, 5, 7 and 9.
Results: The results showed that expression of CD34 in ADSCs was different between donors and their passages that accounted from 1.21% to 23.38%.
Conclusion: These results suggested that ADSCs are not â€˜trulyâ€ MSCs like MSCs from bone marrow.
Stem cell research is among the most exciting, attractive, and rapidly growing fields in biomedicine. Besides the popularity of stem cell research at the bench, stem cell therapy has become a bustling interest in the clinic and industry. In Vietnam, biomedical scientists have studied stem cells since 1995. From that time on, Vietnamese scientists have obtained significant achievements in stem cell research and therapy, especially with regards to stem cell therapy for disease treatment. This report aims to provide an overview of stem cell research and therapy from 1995 to date. Stem cell research activities were collected by questionnaire and analyzed based on publications and projects about stem cells in various databases, including Pubmed, Web of Science, Google Scholar, Embase, as well as from national scientific information. The results showed that stem cell research and therapy significantly increased from 2009 to date with greater publications on stem cells and clinical applications. With this growth rate, Vietnam is poised to continue developing in the stem cell industry. The potential goal for Vietnam is to advance as one of the countries in the Southeast Asian region and in the world that continues to push the frontier in stem cell research and therapy.
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are the most promising stem cells for clinical applications. MSCs are widely used in disease treatment in some different countries. Recently, some MSC banks are developed to cryopreserve MSCs from umbilical cord tissues, adipose tissues, and bone marrow. This review aims to discuss some techniques, some advantages, as well as disadvantages of the umbilical cord, derived mesenchymal stem cell banking (UCMSCB). From 2010 to date, there are more than 10 UCMSCBs established in the world. There are two methods to isolate UCMSCs including tissue culture and single cell culture. Then they are cryopreserved in the liquid nitrogen for a long time. Although UCMSCBs can provide more the choice to store the MSCs from the umbilical cord, allogeneic MSC transplantation with high efficacy in disease treatment suggests that UCMSCBs should change with new approaches to use the cryopreserved samples.
More than 500 clinical trials are using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the world to treat some different diseases. The safety of expanded MSC transplantation is the most important thing to ensure that this therapy can become the routine treatment of human illnesses. More than five MSCs based stem cell drug products are approved in various countries demonstrated that expanded MSCs are safe in both local injection and transfusion. Moreover, some recent reports for six years followed-up clinical trials using expanded MSCs confirmed that there is not different tumorigenesis between the patients with and without expanded MSC transplantation. This letter aims to provide some evidence about the safety of expanded MSCs in clinical applications. However, the MSC quality should be strictly controlled during the in vitro MSC expansion.
Introduction: Endothelial cells (ECs) or endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are essential cells for blood vascular regeneration and vascular tissue engineering. However, the source of EPCs are limited. Indeed, these cells only existence with low rate at some tissues such as bone marrow, umbilical cord blood and peripheral blood. This study aimed to produce EPCs from direct reprogramming of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) by ETV2 transfection in vitro.
Methods: ADSCs were isolated according to the published works. They were confirmed as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with some characteristics included expression of CD44, CD73, CD90, negative of CD14, CD45, and HLA-DR; in vitro differentiation into adipocytes, and osteoblasts. ETV-2 mRNA was in vitro produced by commercial kit. ETV-2 mRNA molecules were transfected into ADSCs by Fugenes and Lipofectamine agents. These transfected cells were evaluated the expression of EPC properties included expression of CD31, VEGFR-2 in the cell surface by flow cytometry, immunocytochemistry, and in vitro vessel formation in the Matrigel.
Results: The results showed that ETV-2 could transform the ADSCs from mesenchymal cell phenotype into endothelial cell phenotype with 10% transfected ADSCs expressing the CD31 in their surface, they also could form the vessel structure in vitro.
Conclusion: Although the low efficacy of direct reprogramming, this study gave the new strategy to produce EPCs from the favorite cell sources as ADSCs.
Diabetes mellitus is a lifelong disease which causes negative effects on patient life. As a result of the disease, patients suffer from high blood sugar and the inability to obtain energy effectively from food. Diabetes mellitus can lead to life-threatening complications such as blindness, cardiovascular disease and diabetic coma. Diabetes can arise from defective insulin hormone production (usually related to type 1 diabetes mellitus or insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM)) and/or defective insulin hormone function (related to type 2 diabetes mellitus). IDDM usually occurs in young people and can cause many serious health problems. There are several treatments which been investigated and applied in patients. Among them, stem cell therapy (especially hematopoietic stem cell therapy) has great potential to treat diabetes due to its many distinct advantages. The review will focus on diabetes mellitus, hematopoietic stem cells, and the novel hematopoietic stem cell therapy in diabetes mellitus type 1 treatment.
Introduction: To date, there have been many studies indicating the positive effects of stem cells on treating liver cirrhosis. In this study, we used umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCB-MSCs) for treatment in a mouse model of liver cirrhosis. Specifically, we determined and compared the effectiveness of two methods of MSC injection (tail vein versus portal vein).
Methods: Liver cirrhosis in male Swiss mice (of age approximately 11 weeks or under) was induced by administration of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4; 1 ml/kg). One million UCB-MSCs were then transplanted into cirrhotic mice via the portal vein or tail vein. After 21 days, blood samples were collected for measurement of transaminase, bilirubin and albumin. The expression of fibrosis-associated genes, specifically procollagen â€“ alpha 1 and integrin â€“ beta1, were assessed using quantitative RT-PCR. The histopathology of the specimens was also evaluated using hematoxylin/eosin, Masson trichrome staining, and immunohistochemistry using collagen type 1 and alpha-SMA antibodies.
Results: After 21 days, cirrhotic mice treated with UCB-MSCs showed recovery of bilirubin index, increase of liver albumin synthesis, inhibition of fibrosis-related gene expression (e.g. procollagen â€“ alpha 1 and integrin â€“ beta1), and remodeling of liver histology. From comparison of the different routes of transplantation, UCB-portal route was significantly more effective than UCB-tail route at reducing aspartate transaminase (AST) activity and bilirubin index (P<0.05), and inhibiting procollagen â€“ alpha 1 and integrin â€“ beta1 expression (P<0.05). UCB-MSCs from both transfusion routes showed accelerated improvement of liver histopathology.
Conclusion: Therapeutic strategies using UCB-MSCs have proven to be promising for the treatment of liver cirrhosis. Injection of UCB-MSC via portal vein was more effective than tail vein for cirrhosis treatment.
Introduction: Both ETV-2 and HGF factors are known to be important factors which trigger neo-angiogenesis both in vitro and in vivo models. This study aimed to treat hindlimb ischemia in mice by co-injection of ETV-2 and HGF viral vectors.
Methods: ETV-2 and HGF vectors were prepared per previous publications. The mouse ischemic hindlimb model was performed by ligating and burning the artery at the hindlimb. ETV-2 and HGF viral vectors were co-injected into the ligated and burnt sites.
Results: The results showed that co-injection of the vectors significantly improved angiogenesis as well as reduced leg loss in mice compared to placebo treatment. The percentage of mice who succumbed to ischemia was also significantly reduced compared to control.
Conclusion: Overall, this study suggests a potential impact of combining ETV-2 and HGF to treat angiogenesis. Use of ETV-2 and HGF viral vectors can be a promising therapy for ischemia treatment in the future.
Diabetes mellitus is a major health problem in the world. The total number of diabeticâ€™s population is increasing every year. Currently used treatment of diabetes mellitus type 1 by controlling the blood sugar levels, doesnâ€™t prevent complications which associate diabetes. The stem cell based therapy for diabetes aims to replace the diseased or lost cells of the pancreas with new cells using pluripotent or multipotent stem cells. Scientists successfully produced insulin secreting cell from different types of stem cells. In this article we briefly reviewed the progress made in the stem cell research for diabetes treatment.