In 2019, World Health Organization (WHO) considered air pollution as the greatest risk to human health. Since, the beginning of 20th century, urbanization has increased greatly and its role in economic sector and social development is very clear but as a consequence altering our planet in ways that pose current threats to environmental and human health. Every day, out of ten nine people breath polluted air. Every year, an estimated 7 million people prematurely died from stroke and cancer, heart and lung diseases.
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A 20-year-old man was admitted with a complaint of a constant dull aching pain in the epigastrium and back for five days, with subsequent worsening and generalization of the pain. Clinically the abdomen was tender all over with board-like rigidity. Chest radiography revealed pneumoperitoneum, and a decision was made to explore the patient. During laparotomy, we found a peritoneal collection with no perforation in the anterior surface of the stomach, duodenum, or the entire gastrointestinal tract. After opening the lesser sac, we found a large perforation of the posterior wall of the duodenum. After direct repair with stitching through duodenotomy and duodenoplasty also done, the patient recovered and was discharged after 14 days. Posterior perforation of a duodenum ulcer is a very rare condition.
Introduction: Anti-Mullerian Hormone (AMH) is considered to be a sensitive biological indicator of the ovarian reserve among women. Produced by the granulosa cells in the ovary, AMH is also considered to be a good biochemical marker to time menopause, apart from being monitored during treatment of certain ovarian tumors. Our retrospective report is an attempt to study AMH levels across different age-groups between 18 â€“ 50 years of age and present age-related changes in levels.
Methods: Serum AMH estimation was done in a total of 219,227 Asian Indian women using the chemiluminescent immunoassay technology.
Results: Our analysis of different age-groups with AMH levels detected a declining trend and a significant drop in levels was recorded between ages 19 â€“ 20 years and 35 â€“ 36 years of age at p<0.05.
Conclusion: Our report is an attempt to present age-effect on AMH levels in a pan-India cohort of Asian Indian women and analysis detected a negative correlation between age and AMH levels.
Background: Mercury is used by artisanal â€” small-scale (ASM) gold miners throughout the World. In 2014, the Sudanese government produced over 60 tons of gold, which make Sudan ranked Africa's third-largest gold miner. Also, Sudan is ranked the 15th global producer. In 2015, over 1 million miners participated in gold mining and extraction. Objective: This study aimed to determine mercury health risk in Sudanese traditional gold mining activities area.
Method: This is an analytical cross-sectional observational stud. The studied population was from ALTWAHEN near ABUHAMED. Urine analysis was supported by epidemiological questionnaires designed by (EPI INFO software) following WHO guidelines. Eighty-six respondents completed the questionnaire. The mercury level was determined in 58 urine sample by Petroleum Laboratories Using Direct Mercury Analyzer DMA- 80 instrument. The epidemiological data were analyzed by (EPI INFO).
Result: 98% exceed concentration of 100 ug/L which contaminated concentration for occasionally exposed, mean urinary mercury concentration 2785 ug/L, the highest mercury concentration worldwide reported by our study 10250 ug/L, Symptoms in 58 patient showed as Problem finding correct word 46.6%, memory problem 27.6%, problem with thinking clearly 29.3%, nervousness 31%, sadness 46.5%, sexual problem 36.2%, headache 51.7%, excessive salivation 43%, drowsy 48.3%.
Conclusion: In this study, the highest urinary mercury concentration was reported (10250 ug/L) compared to other studies. Mercury concentration with no significant difference between the miner groups and others. Also, this study found high incidents of neurological symptoms associated with neurotoxicity. The problem with thinking significantly correlated to the age weighted by mercury concentration. Only tremor significantly related to the time living in the mining area. Otherwise, no significant relationship between mercury concentration ,symptoms and time living in the area.
Recommendation: conducting Interventional study by using chelation therapy, Gold miners should use safety tools, Activation of laws and conventions (MINAMATA convention).
Introduction: The state of Kerala in the country of India has been getting on the wrong side of nature over the past few years. From raging floods to massive outbreaks of viral diseases, the state of Kerala has been in turmoil over the past few years. The rains and floods have ceased leaving behind a catastrophic world of copious vector-borne infectious diseases. Moreover, a migrant crisis has been looming over the state for the past few decades resulting in an accumulation of various other dangerous diseases from multiple different parts of the country. Even after taking into consideration the great health care facilities in Kerala there have been multiple reports of infectious disease outbreaks, especially in rural districts. This short review is written with the purpose to review the facts into a single entity that can provide solid proof and hence evoke a stricter sense of awareness among communities to minimize the losses and prevent the exigency of public health that can occur not too far away in the foreseeable future.
Methods: Various databases were searched like Scopus and Google scholar and all articles related to reported infections in the state of Kerala and the factors which can lead to the public health crisis were selected and included in the review.
Results: A multiple numbers of articles on viral infections were obtained in the various databases. Most of the bacterial infections were reported as urinary and respiratory tract infections. Migrant crisis and 2018 floods were two of the most recent contributing factors that can lead to an emergency in public health in the state.
Conclusion: There can be a sudden unexpected outbreak of infectious diseases if the government does not carefully monitor the rural districts like Alappuzha.
Introduction: The insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of 287 bp Alu repeat sequence in intron 16 of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) gene resulting in three genotypes I/D, D/D and I/I. ACE gene expression is associated with ACE levels in cells and in the plasma. It indicated that the polymorphism may modulate the expression of the ACE gene. The D/D genotype is believed to confer deleterious effect to many pathogenesis, also, it might be a cause-effect for type 2 diabetic nephropathy (T2DN). In this study, we evaluated the frequency of the different genotypes of ACE gene and investigated if there is an association between ACE gene polymorphism and T2DN by comparing the genotypes results of T2DN patients to healthy control, Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and nephropathy patients in Gaza Strip.
Methodology: The study included 170 subjects, consisting of 43 T2DM patients undergoing dialysis "T2DN" compared to 41 T2DM patients who were not undergoing dialysis, 43 patients undergoing dialysis without T2DM and 43 healthy individuals. Blood samples were collected in EDTA tubes for DNA extraction. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was used to detect ACE gene polymorphism. All subjects were asked to fill the questionnaire interview.
Results and Conclusion: The initial results showed that there is no statistically significant association between ACE genotypes and T2DN, also between the T2DM and nephropathy when compared to the healthy control (p> 0.05). The (D/D) genotype was the most frequent in all study groups. Moreover, no association was observed between ACE genotypes and gender, diabetic nephropathy, nephropathy, diabetes, hypertension, obesity and various other diabetes complications.
Objectives: To investigate the knowledge, awareness, and attitudes of school teachers towards breast cancer in Kaduna metropolis.
Methods: A survey of school teachers aged 20 â€“ 65 years was conducted in both public and private schools in Kaduna metropolis. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data.
Results: Out of the 997 participants, mean age 40.69 (SD = 12.09) years. Of all the participants, 259 (26.0%) were males, and 738 (74.0%) were females. The role of a teacher in disseminating information or knowledge cannot be overemphasized. Because of that crucial role they play thus makes it necessary that they have the right information so that they can transfer such to their students or wards. The children today represents the young generation that is growing. It will be good if they have the right knowledge about breast cancer concerning what breast cancer is, what causes it, knowledge of signs and symptoms, and what measures to take to prevent or treat it.
Conclusion: This study shows that there is breast cancer awareness but there is low in-depth knowledge about the disease. There is low knowledge of risk factors, signs and symptoms, low response to breast self-examination (BSE), clinical breast examination (CBE) and mammography. Educational health programs can be organized to help create more awareness and knowledge about breast cancer which has the potential to help the public in making informed decisions thereby reducing the incidence of this disease.
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a major public health concern that annually affects 1 in 3 (35%) of women worldwide. The term â€œintimate partner violenceâ€ defines as physical, sexual, or psychological harm by a current or former partner or spouse.
Women with the characteristics like: low level of education, history of abuse among parents, history of childhood, abuse, antisocial personality disorder, attitudes accepting violence and male privilege are more susceptible to IPV. Consequence of this violence, victims may experience some serious short- and long-term physical, mental, sexual and reproductive health problems such as injuries, chronic pain, gastrointestinal, and gynecological problems including sexually-transmitted diseases, depression, homicide or suicide, and post-traumatic stress disorders.
Objective: The aim of this study was to assess obesity and overweight by WHO criteria in Mashhad, Iran.
Method: This cross-sectional study was performed on 4453 people from Mashhad in 2009. Comprehensive data of age, height, weight, education, and marriage was collected. Overweight and obesity were calculated according to the body mass index (BMI).
Results: A total of 1828 participants entered study, of whom 70.4% were women. The mean age of the population was 39.8Â±13.5 years. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 36.5% (95% CI 34.3-38.6) and 16.9% (95% CI 15.1-18.8), respectively. The prevalence of overweight was 39.0% in men and 35.4% in women which increased significantly by age (P<0.001 & OR=1.055). The prevalence of obesity in men and women was 12.3% and 18.9% respectively which showed women had a significantly higher risk (P<0.001). The risk of overweight and obesity was higher in married but lower in educated people.
Conclusion: This study showed a rapid increase in obesity and overweight, especially in women, in Mashhad population as a sample of the Iranian society. Attention to preventive and education plans should be the priority of health policies.
Granuloma pyogenicum is the second most common oral lesion, which does not produce pus. This is a smooth, painless, non neoplastic and lobulated or cauliflower like growth of the connective tissue seen commonly on gingiva and in young females comparing to males. Pyogenic granuloma seems to contribute 19.76-25% of all reactive lesions. Pyogenic granuloma being benign in nature this may attain an alarming size causing pain and discomfort. Thus early intervention through reinforcement of adequate oral hygiene measures along with surgical excision down to the periosteum is necessary to minimize the recurrence.