rs1801133 is a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) located in the sequence of MTHFR on human chromosome 1. The alleles of this SNP affect the activity of the MTHFR enzyme. People bearing C/T genotype have 66% activity of MTHFR while people with T/T genotype have only 25% activity. These reduced activities of MTHFR cause homocysteinemia. There are several publications on the relationship between homocysteinemia and human diseases such as cardiovascular disease, neurological diseases, abnormal fetus, infertility and cancer. In this study, we built a molecular protocol for genotyping rs1801133 using real-time PCR HRM technique. This protocol could be used for diagnosis of molecular mechanism of homocysteinemia causing the mentoned above diseases as well as for the study of the relationship between rs1801133 and other human diseases. We successfully designed the primer pairs for genotyping and nucleotide sequencing rs1801133 by real-time PCR HRM and Sanger sequencing method. We also examined the optimal MgCl2 concentration for clear differentiation of three rs1801133 genotypes. Performance characteristics of the real-time PCR HRM protocol included of specificity, repeatability, reproducibility was evaluated and it showed good results. Comparison of genotyping results of rs1801133 between the realtime PCR HRM method and the Sanger nucleotide sequencing method showed good concordances. Finally, this real-time PCR HRM protocol for rs1801133 genotyping was applied on 100 human DNA samples to evaluate the clinical utility of the protocol.
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Dendrobium is one of the largest and most important orchid genera because of their ornamental and commercial value. Plant tissue culture is an established method for the effective micropropagation of of valuable plants. In this study, Dendrobium caesar keikis were sterilized with sodium hypochlorite 2.5 % in 15 minutes. Effects of 3 kinds of cytokinin (TDZ, BA and kinetin), adenine and 3 kinds of auxin (IAA, IBA, NAA) with different concentrations on inducing shoots and roots were studied. The highest shoot initation was observed on Knudson C (KC) medium supplemented with BA 2.0 mg/L. Strong roots were induced in KC media supplied with 0.5 g/L active charcoal (AC) and 1.0 mg/L IAA. In order to transfer in vitro plant to the nursery garden, the highest percentage of survival seedling was shown on coconut husk substrate, and peanut husk was the best for the growth and development of Dendrobium caesar. Micropropagation and nursery at garden for Dendrobium caesar were successfully established.
The banana domestic market as well as global market are growing. Musa balbasiana (BBB group) is now one of the preferred banana types; however, this banana group is facing up to risk of degeneration and disease. Therefore, the micropropagation of banana to provide genetic stability, disease-free seedlings, and enriching the types of bananas in the market is essential. In this study, we have completed the process of Musa balbasiana (BBB group) micropropagation. The study results showed that the samples were sterilized with NaOCl 3% solution in 12-15 minutes depending on the size and age of the samples, buds were regenerated on Murashige and Skoog medium (MS) added 0.5 mg/L 1-phenyl-3 (1,2,3 thiadiazol-5-yl) (TDZ). MS medium supplemented with 1 mg/L benzylaminopurine (BA) and 0.25 mg/L kinetin made high efficiency shoot initation (10.700 Â± 0.135 buds/sample) and the shoot height at the day of 20 was 3.023 Â± 0.018 cm. Musa balbasiana (BBB group) had been the most induced roots on MS medium without plant growth regulators with 4.533 Â± 0.058 roots/shoot and the roots were 2.433 Â± 0.067 cm in length. Complete seedlings (with roots, stems, and leave) were transferred to the nursery and planted on sand with the highest survival rate of 91.1 %. After two weeks, the survival plants were moved to grown on clean soil for the best growth and development.
Colorectal cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers and a leading cause of death nowadays. The main method to treat colorectal cancer is the surgery. However, more than 50 % of patients relapse after surgery and die from metastatic cancer. Therefore, it is important to do research on the molecular mechanism of this disease and consequently develop effective therapies. In these studies, the colorectal cancer cell is the indispensable research model. However, cancer cell lines lose the oncogenic characteristics after prolonged culture compared to those in the body of patients. To solve this problem, the study is aimed to obtain, to primarily culture, and to maintain the colorectal cancer cells from Vietnamese patients serving as cancer research model. Colorectal cancer cells were separated from 40 tumor samples and primarily cultured in vitro. 4 of 40 populations of cancer cells were cultured successfully. These cell populations were grafted into immuno-deficient SCID mice and 2 cell populations developed to xenograft tumors on mice. Then single cell suspensions from xenograft tumors were collected and analyzed the expression of surface markers huCD133 and huEpcam using flow cytometry. The human primary cancer cells from xenograft tumors positive with huCD133 and huEpcam were identified and isolated. These 2 colorectal cancer cell populations could proliferate well in in-vitro culture condition. In conclusion, the results showed that the human colorectal cancer primary cells could be maintained and proliferated in immuno-deficient mice which will be a source to supply the cancer cells for the study of cancer.
The agronomic values of this population have been evaluated in the field experiments based on their phenotypic performance of agronomic traits, but the genetic variability of this population needs to be evaluated via techniques based on genetic material - DNA. In this study, the genetic variability in the investigated population of 71 hybrids and their parents was evaluated by RAPD technique, using eight selected arbitrarily primers; Genetic parameters and dendrogram expressing the genetic relationships among the investigated population were analyzed by GenALEx 6.1, Popgene 1.31 and NTSYSpc 2.1 softwares. Eight primers were used to generate the amplify products on each individual in the investigated population. From 74 genotypes, a total of 109 fragments were generated, among which, there were 89 polymorphic bands representing 81.65% with an average of 11 polymorphic bands/primer. Genetic similarity coefficient among the investigated population, based on DICE coefficient, ranged from 0.560 (LH05/0822 and PB260) to 0.991 (LH05/0781 and LH05/0841) with an average of 0,796, meaning that the genetic distance among ranged from 0.009 to 0.440 with an average of 0.231. The Shannon index and mean heterozygosity values were 0.328 and 0,176, respectively. This indicated that the progenies of the two investigated crosses possessed a relatively high range of genetic variability. The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that genetic variation within population represented 62%, while genetic variation among two different crosses contributes 38% to the total genetic variability. Dendrogram based on DICEâ€™s genetic similarity using UPGMA method showed that the hybrids divide into two major genetic groups (0.75), but the crosses were scattered independently of the hybrid.
In this work, some physiological parameters of micropropagated Bac Kan local alpinia (Alpinia coriandriodora D. Fang) affected by drought and salicylic acid treatments under drought condition were analyzed. In comparison to well watered plants, the droughted plants have lower contents of relative water, photosynthetic pigments, anthocyanins in leaves and Fv/Fm ratio. In constrat, proline content and activity of both catalase and peroxidase are higher in droughted plants. SA treatments, 10 ïM in particular, attenuate damages in droughted alpinia plants by affecting on some physiological parameters. An increase in content of relative water, photosynthetic pigments (chlorophylls and carotenoids), and anthocyanins were observed in leaves of treated plants in comparison to non-treated plants under drought condition. Fv/Fm ratio and peroxidase activity are higher in 10 ïM SA-treated plants than non-treated ones. Both 10 ïM and 100 ïM SA treatments lead to a decrease in proline accumulation and catalase activity in leaves of droughted plants.
Nematode communities in the Tam Giangâ€™s organic shrimp farming ponds, Nam Can district, Ca Mau province were investigated in three seasons (March - dry, July - transfer and November - rainy season). Results showed that the average abundance (inds/10 cm2) ranged from 221.67 Â± 122.08 to 2539.33 Â± 1403.33 in the dry season. The tranfers and rainy season also showed a high density, from 1020.00 Â± 354.30 to 7254.67 Â± 5454.39, 822.00 Â± 1086.17 â€“ 4608.33 Â± 1302.02, respectively. Total dry biomass (Âµg/10 cm2) of nematode communities in Tam Giangâ€™s organic shrimp farming ponds varied from 51.11 Â± 28.64 to 450.87 Â± 49.53 in the dry, from 412.93 Â± 291.87 to 1607.25 Â± 507.42 in the transfer and ranged 49.54 Â± 39.36 to 1874.09 Â± 3033.16 in the rainy season. The following results were also recorded that abundance/biomass comparison (ABC) method has been used successfully for detecting the ecological quality status of sediment (EcoQ) in Tam Giangâ€™s organic shrimp farming ponds. The results indicated that unfavourable deflections (stress) in EcoQ of Tam Giangâ€™s organic shrimp farming ponds throughout the dry - transfer - rainy season. More specifically, the EcoQ of Tam Giangâ€™s organic shrimp farming ponds has been classified as lightly stressed in most seasons, excpet for the transfer season which has been recognized as the highest EcoQ depending on its ABC curves and W values. Although EcoQ in the Tam Giangâ€™s organic shrimp farming ponds has always been clear, information on Received 05-01-2017, accepted 14-08- 2017, published 12- 9-2018 Author: Tran Thanh Thai, Nguyen Thi My Yen, Ngo Xuan Quang- Department of Environmental Management and Technology, Institute of Tropical Biology, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Le Dieu Linh - Ton Duc Thang University - firstname.lastname@example.org the main cause effected biomass between natural stress or pollution stress remains uncertain.
The ex vitro acclimatization process plays an important role in plant micropropagation. In vitro plantlets have to rapidly adapt to environmental changes. The current work aimed at assessing some physiological and biochemical changes of micropropagated Dendrobium anosmum Lindl. Plantlets during ex vitro acclimatization process, eg. contents of water (leaf relative water content), dry matter, proline and photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoid), chlorophyll fluorescence and antioxidant enzymes (peroxidase vÃ catalase) activities. The analyzed results showed that water content decreased in acclimatized plantlets compared to in vitro ones. The chlorophylls and carotenoids contents of what were significantly higher in ex vitro plantlet leaves compared to the day 0 plantlets. The pigment contents were observed to increase during the ex vitro acclimatation process. When the plantlets were moved out of the in vitro medium, the maximum photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm) significantly decreased at the early acclimatation points then restored at the end of acclimatation process. The content of proline and activities of antoxidant enzymes significantly increased with different periods of acclimatation process. The proline content and enzyme activities were recorded at the first ex vitro period when most water loss occurred in plantlets. These results suggest that Dendrobium anosmum Lindl in vitro plantlets have adapted to the transplantation by possesing some physiological responses of its photosynthetic system as well as its antioxidant machinery.
[(SO3H)4C4C1Im]HSO4 is a BrÃ¶nsted ionic liquid, which was found to be an effective catalyst for organic synthesis. Ionic liquid was prepared from 1-methylimidazole and 1,4- butanesultone (ratio = 1:1), structure of [(SO3H)4C4C1Im]HSO4 was characterized by using nuclear magnetic resonance NMR spectroscopy and high-resolution electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (HR-ESI-MS). Ionic liquid was used as a catalyst for multi-component reaction, which afforded the desired products in high yields (over 80%) and short reaction time (5 min) under microwave irradiation. The catalyst could be recycled several times without loss of efficient catalytic activity.
The capability of chitosan-based MnO2 material for retention of arsenate in water was investigated for static and dynamic models. Several factors that influence the retention capacity of the material for As(V) such as pH, adsorption time, initial concentration of As(V), mixing speed (static) and competitive anions were studied. The results showed that the maximum adsorption capacity calculated from Langmuir model of As(V) on MnO2/chitosan was lower than that of chitosan (3.33 mg As/g compared to 12.5 mgAs/g). However, the retention efficiency for As(V) at low concentration (300 ppb) of MnO2/chitosan was much better than chitosan (>99% compared to 81%). MnO2/chitosan material worked with As(V) within pH range of 3.06 â€“ 9.13 with best efficiency within pH range of 3â€“4. Chloride, nitrate and sulfate anions at concentrations of 8000â€“10000 mg/L reduced 20% retention efficientcy of As(V). The studied material showed its great promise to be useful for As(V) removal from water